The main additions to be made are the reports and the studies based on the ongoing (since the 1980s) archaeological activities in the Upper Egyptian ruin complex of the ancient Kellis (Ismant el-Kharab, Dakhleh oasis, cf. 18-26); and many more publications by Iain Gardner, Majella Franzmann, and Klaas Worp on Coptic, Greek, and Syriac texts from Kellis.

13-21), in the Islamic Near East in the 11th century, in Central Asia probably in the 12th or 13th century, and finally in China in the 16th century (Lieu, 1992, p. A Manichean temple in Buddhist disguise still exists in Quanzhou in the South Chinese Fujian province (Bryder, 1988, pp. It is true that European scholars recently discovered traces of Buddha-Mani worship still being practiced in the same Fujian province, but this is, according to S. The same may be true of a modern “Manichaean Church” presented on the internet (accessed 20 July 2009). It was only in the 20th century that genuine Manichean texts and documents came to light in different parts of the world (cf. As a universal religion Manicheism was, in the words of Henri-Charles Puech, a “religion de charactère essentiellement missionnaire,” and more so than any other religion, Islam included, “une religion . It implied a strictly ascetic lifestyle of the elect and the support for the elect by the auditors through almsgiving and a general confession and atonement of sins. A simplified description of its main issues will be given here (for details see COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY IN MANICHEISM). Their whole aggressive force is turned against the completely unprotected World of Light. The First Man advances towards the enemy, suffers defeat, looses consciousness, and his five sons, the Light Elements, are swallowed up by the greedy demons. The devoured Light Elements have a poisonous effect on the demons. The elect will then be given the insignia of victory, and they will be triumphantly led to Paradise, commonly specified as the “New Paradise” of the First Man (Boyce, 1954, pp. The souls of the hearers and the worldly sinners have to undergo as their appropriate punishment a process of painful transmigration. On the complexity of the Manichean doctrine of the afterlife cf. 22-23), Middle Persian wardišn “turning,” Parthian zādmurd, Sogdian , both “birth – death”. They were admittedly written down five centuries after Mani’s lifetime and even later, but they contain older traditions. Below the time and fate level, however, the antagonism of good and evil remained at full power. Both worlds are limitless and at the same time limit each other.

Wherever it was present, Manicheism appeared as the religion of an often persecuted minority, with the exception of the Uighur steppe empire and the Uighur kingdom of Qocho, where it gained the status of a state religion from about 762 to the 11th century. entries: Christ in Manicheism, Cosmogony and Cosmology in Manicheism, Dīnāvarīya, Manichean Eschatology, Mani the founder of Manicheism, Festivals (Manichean), (The Book of) Giants, Manichean Pandemonium, Manichean Pantheon, Iran ix. But beside the conceptual pair of “wisdom and work(s),” Andreas and Henning, 1933, p. The heart and core of the Manichean doctrine is the cosmogony. The cosmogony starts with a description of the primeval existence of the two worlds of divine Light and demonic Darkness limiting each other directly without any void space in between (Ebn al-Nadim, ed. The attack of the demonic hosts is averted only by the self-sacrifice of the highest god, the Father of Greatness, in the person of his son, the First Man (Polotsky, 1935, p. But this apparent triumph of the demons turns out to be a hollow victory. They paralyze their aggressive force and give the World of Light time to develop militant protective counter-measures against the demonic attack. There is also the myth of a post-mortal judgment before the “righteous judge” (Parth. 115) and who weighs the works of the deceased (Jackson, 1923, pp. This may mean that transmigration in the Manichean sense does not necessarily presuppose being born as a new personality or creature but rather being restricted to a kind of guest-status in another living being, a plant, an animal, a man and preferably an elect. There is, however, evidence for an overwhelming impact of the Zoroastrian on the Manichean cosmogony and its radical ethical and ontological dualism (cf. They display a strictly dualistic world-view already in existence before the third century CE according to the testimonies of Plutarch (de Jong, 1997, pp. It was this second level dualism that agreed with Mani’s own preconceived dualism, and this he accepted, placing the Zoroastrian Zurvan uncompromisingly on the side of the good beings. The attack of the demons plunges both worlds into turmoil and conflict.

The creation of the world—the Macrocosm (Middle Persian “Small Being.” The Enthymesis of Death herself, in the form of the demonic couple of Ašaqlūn and Nebrō’ēl, procreates Adam and Eve as the best possible prisons of the Light substance of the World Soul. Thus, thanks to the superior aptitude of the divine beings, man, the most sophisticated creature of the demonic world, can be made the most effective instrument of the redemption of the World Soul. If we call the communal meal of the elect a kind of Eucharist, it is just the opposite of the Christian ceremony. 421-27), and will hold the Last Judgment upon mankind. The great fire will last for 1,468 years (Ogden, 1930, pp. Mani himself admitted this dependence, and it seems not to have clashed with his claim to have received his wisdom from divine revelation. So Manicheism can be characterized as a de-Christianized religion of Christian origin. Both the Zoroastrian and the quite different Manichean conception of these events are called in Middle Persian VIII, p. It comes close to Zoroastrianism in its evaluation of the material world.

Therefore, according to Mani’s doctrine it is humankind that is a demonic creation, rather than the world as such. But not only were Jesus and his helpers successful in rescuing the souls of many men, they even managed to transform some persons—the elect— soul and body, to instruments of the material liberation of the light substance in plants through their digestive system (Be Duhn, 2000, esp. , follows one by one and at different places, renewing the divine message that is exactly the same as what Mani later espoused. Unfortunately, none of the forerunners of Mani took sufficient care to have his message preserved in written form and in authorized texts, so that their disciples misunderstood their masters in many ways and their detractors produced their own falsifications in the name of the same masters (for references cf. It does not mediate God’s redemption of the believers through Christ’s sacrifice, it affects the redemption of the suffering divine World Soul (also called by Faustus) through the redeeming force of holy men (Tardieu, 1981, pp. In this way the elect gain a super-human rank, and it is doubtlessly in this function that they are addressed as “gods” (Copt. He will do what the biblical parable on the Last Judgment, Matt. 31-46, foretold: separate the righteous from the evildoers like the sheep from the goats. In his famous speech about the superiority of his religion in ten points he mentions “the scriptures, the wisdom and the parables” of the former religions that came to “this” [religion]. One of the redeeming Jesus figures is the historical Jesus of Nazareth who appeared on earth in order to teach mankind the divine truth in the western regions. In other points it keeps a more Gnostic view: the nature of matter, of man, of the world as a prison of the World Soul, the final destruction of the world.

GENERAL SURVEY This article is designed to provide a brief general survey of Manichean doctrine and religious practice. 439-42); Manicheism, Buddhist Elements in; Manicheism in China; Mithra in Manicheism.

Specific aspects of Manicheism, as well as biographies of eminent scholars of the field, have their own entries in the . 569-75); Mani the founder of Manicheism (forthcoming); Manichean Literature (forthcoming); Manichean Missionary Activities; Manichean Pandemonium (forthcoming); Manichean Pantheon; Manichean Script; Iran ix. This article focuses on references to these entries with additions and corrections wherever necessary. entries: Asmussen, Baur, Beausobre, Chavannes, Henning). A detailed, balanced, and comprehensive introduction to the history of Manichean studies up to 1987 is given by Julien Ries (1988).

Manicheism itself claimed the universal validity of its truth. Religions in Iran 1 (1.2) Manicheism, Mithra in Manicheism.) ed. 44-45) that claimed to convince the human mind instead of demanding unquestioning acceptance (Puech, 1949, pp. It gives the answer to the questions “where have you come from, where do you go, what is your desire, for what purpose did you come, where have you been sent to? It was in the end rather, as Be Duhn put it, the First Man’s “victory by self-sacrifice” (Be Duhn, 2005, p. Therefore, under the constraint of the demonic menace, the World of Light changes its character, and becomes a mighty warlike power. The deeds of man had their place in the complex system of Manichean individual eschatology. The Parthian term for this kind of light substance is widāragān mihmān “transient guest” (Sundermann, 1992, pp. It is the grim fate of the sinners to transmigrate to animal bodies, to fall into the hands of the merciless demons, and in the end to be imprisoned with them in the eternal . Further research on the Iranian Manichean documents as well as the discovery of Coptic and Greek texts confirmed Schaeder’s criticism. The assessment of possible Zoroastrian sources in Mani’s system is complicated by the fact that Mani evidently also adopted some non-Iranian information on the person of the Iranian prophet handed down by the , Paris, 1938, cf. A systematic comparison of the Zoroastrian and the Manichean cosmogonies displays accords and differences. The leaders in battle against the dark powers are the Zoroastrian god has to save the world of light through his self-sacrifice and the sacrifice of his sons, even if this is stylized as a heroic achievement or a clever ruse.

Mani regarded his doctrine not as the religion of a region, a state, or a chosen people, but as the completion of the preceding great religions of Christianity, Zoroastrianism, and Buddhism. A comprehensive but partially destroyed Coptic version of Mani’s speech on the ten superiorities of his religion is given in the , ed. The warlike aspect of the World of Light is represented by its Second Evocation, the third deity of which, the Spirit of Life, liberates the First Man, but cannot immediately liberate his sons. The righteous person was promised (usually as the first step to the other world) a meeting with his (good) deeds (Sogd. The hearers will go the opposite way: transmigration to plants and liberation and ascension as the result of a process that in the end makes them the alimentation of the elects’ sacred meals. Mani himself regarded the fate of the hearers after death as so intricate and complicated that he did not try to depict it in his . Hans Heinrich Schaeder, who himself had first followed this line of thought, gave decisive proof that the Iranian mythological names were no more than outward terminological accommodations (he called it “mechanische ‘Übersetzungen;’” mechanical translations) to the Iranian Zoroastrian ambience of Mani’s and his disciples’ activities (Schaeder, 1927, p. The persons of the East Manichean pantheon and pandemonium are figures of a Gnostic system in Zoroastrian garb. It has been done in a most comprehensive and judicious way by Oktor Skjærvø who admits an Iranian, i.e. The struggle of the two worlds will be, in the Zoroastrian view, settled definitely at the end of the cosmos.

The cosmic work of the successive, step by step, liberation of the World Soul is the task of the deities of the Third Evocation who act under the guidance of the Third Messenger, mainly in the macrocosmic sphere, and under Jesus the Splendor who is mostly concerned with the liberation of the human souls. 197), of power and to imprison it in the corporeal limbs. Their number and their sequence change in our sources, but the most prominent ones between Adam and Mani are Zoroaster, the Buddha, and Jesus of Nazareth, or, in other sequence, the Buddha, Zoroaster, and Jesus (Sundermann, 1991, pp. The first he will put on his right side, the second on the left. After Jesus’ judgment has cleared the world from human life, it remains void for a hundred years (Sundermann, 2003, p. Then the functionless building of the world, so long a useful means of salvation and protection, will be given up by the divine powers, and a process set in motion which is a reversion of cosmogonic events. But in that selfsame speech he also underlines the superiority of his universal religion (Andreas and Henning, 1933, pp. 192-93; , Mani’s self-chosen title “Apostle of Jesus Christ,” adopted Christian terms such as “Paraclete,” “Evangelion” or “Presbyter,” passages quoted from canonical and apocryphal Christian works, and the fact that even in texts used in a non-Christian environment Jesus is praised. Mani accepted him as one of his forerunners, and the best known to him. One might explain this optimistic side of the Manichean world-view as an alignment to Zoroastrian ideas and the Manichean system as a kind of Gnosticism under Iranian impact, which would confirm Jonas’ definition of Manicheism as a representative of the Iranian type of Gnosticism. Its idea of the sacrifice of the First Man imitated the Christian doctrine of the The Buddha whom Mani recognized as one of his forerunners was the least known Apostle of Light of the triad Jesus, Zoroaster, Buddha, and so the contribution of the Buddhist doctrine to Manicheism was a modest one at best.