In the 900s an earth rampart for the defence of the early city was constructed, encircling the settlement, much like the defence structures found at Viking ring fortresses elsewhere.

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It is notable that the "Aa" spelling has been in use the longest.

"Aa" was also used by some major institutions between 1948-2011 as well, such as Aarhus university (AU) or the largest local sports club, Aarhus Gymnastikforening (AGF), who have never used the "Å"-spelling.

There are strong indications of a former royal residence from the Viking Age in Viby, a few kilometres south of the Aarhus city centre.

The growing influence of the Church during the Middle Ages gradually turned Aarhus, with its bishopric, into a prosperous religious centre.

Archaeologists have conducted several excavations in the inner city since the 1960s revealing wells, streets, homes and workshops.

In the buildings and adjoining archaeological layers, everyday utensils like combs, jewellery and basic multi-purpose tools from approximately the year 900 have been found.

; officially spelled Århus from 1948 until 31 December 2010) is the second-largest city in Denmark and the seat of Aarhus municipality.

It is located on the east coast of the Jutland peninsula, in the geographical centre of Denmark, 187 kilometres (116 mi) northwest of Copenhagen and 289 kilometres (180 mi) north of Hamburg, Germany.

Market town privileges were granted in 1441, but growth stagnated in the 17th century as the city suffered blockades and bombardments during the Swedish Wars.